that inadequate attachment can have
a profound influence on a child's developing brain.
Evidence is also accumulating
that one common adverse consequence
is the brain's increased susceptibility to addictive diseases.
Research on the possible relationship
between certain genetic anomalies and alcoholism had led to the
discovery of a statistically significant incident of a
genetic variable that is related
to a number of behavioral syndromes.
These disorders are linked by a common biological thread
that leads to either an inborn or induced imbalance
in the limbic area of the brain,
(commonly referred to the pleasure center of the brain)
that leaves a person with feelings of
deficits in safety, warmth, and satiety.
If these requirements are not responded to,
the limbic system signals
threat, anxiety, and discomfort.
Craving will be triggered, which motivates the individual
to take action to eliminate negative emotions.
The reward-deficiency syndrome
just described involves a form of
sensory deprivation of brain pleasure mechanisms.
The syndrome is believed to be a consequence of an
individual's biochemical inability
to derive reward from ordinary everyday activities.
It is hypothesized that depletion in dopamine and serotonin levels
contributes to this condition.
The reward deficiency syndrome supports
many of the new research findings
from the emerging neurobiology of addiction.
Prolonged use of substance alter synapses
and the production
of certain neurotransmitters.
At some point,
the addicted brain becomes
quite different from the non-addicted brain.
Addiction as an Attachment Disorder